Major fundraising charities lose £23m in investment assets during recession

first_img Howard Lake | 22 April 2010 | News Tagged with: Finance recession Research / statistics AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis  Assets 19,537.9 18,282.9 -10.2  £m £m % * Cancer Research UK (down from £230 million to £154 million);* Royal National Lifeboat Institution (down from £281 million to £221 million);* NSPCC (down from £73 million to £49 million);* The Guide Dogs for the Blind Association (down from £145 million to £127 million).The table below gives a snapshot of the changing fortunes of the UK’s largest fundraising charities which provide many of the vital services on which government and the public rely.  UK’s largest 500 fundraising charities 2007/08 2008/09 real change Major fundraising charities lose £23m in investment assets during recessioncenter_img  Investment funds 8,538.2 6,991.9 -21.4 Cass Business School reports that income from investments for the UK’s major fundraising charities fell by £23 million during the recession, while investment asset values fell by £1.5 billion (10.2%).Cathy Pharoah, Professor of Charity Funding at Cass Business School, led the research which will be published in Charity Market Monitor in June 2010. The collective investment fund value of the UK’s 500 largest fundraising charities fell by 21.4%, and income from investments dropped by 8.4%.Charities which saw a fall in the value of their investments in 2008-09 include: Advertisement  34 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Professor Pharoah explained the significance of these falls: “Many of the major service-providing charities rely on investment income to provide a cushion, or an independent source of income, against fluctuations in their income from legacies, statutory contracts or shop trading. A fall in the value of their assets makes it much harder for charities to plan future activities or commit to developing much-needed new services.”Charity Market Monitor 2010 is a collaboration between Cass Business School and CaritasData. Through analysis of the finances of the UK’s major fundraising charities and causes, provided by CaritasData, CMM provides up-to-date annual perspectives on the funds they raise.www.cass.city.ac.uk  Income from investments 506.5 483.7 -8.4 About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.last_img read more

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Damir Dzumhur and Larisa Ceric are the best Athletes of BiH this Year

first_imgTennis player Damir Dzumhur and judoka Larisa Ceric are the best athletes of BiH for the year of 2017.Dzumhur made a step forward in 2017, and he came to the title of the best athlete in BiH after he achieved historical results for BH tennis and sports in general. This year, he won two ATP titles from the series 250 in St. Petersburg and Moscow, and he manged to get in the top 30 players of ATP ranking list. Besides Dzumhur, Edin Dzeko and basketball player Dzanan Musa were also in the competition for this title.Larisa Ceric, member of the judo club Nippon from Sarajevo, recorded several great achievements this year. She won the bronze medal at the European Championship in Warsaw and she also became the vice champion at the World Championship in the open category. Among the top three athletes were also Aleksandra Samardzic (judo) and Lejla Tanovic (cycling).The awards for the most promising athletes went to the representative of BiH in Taekwondo, Katarina Krajisnik and karate player Munib Dedovic.The award for the development of sports went to the University Sports Society Bosna, which celebrates a great jubilee this year – 70 years of existence.The title of the most successful BH team with the largest number of trophies went to the National team of BiH in the seat volleyball, which received the award for the best team in sports for disabled persons. The award for the best athlete in the sport for the disabled persons was awarded to Igor Ignjatovic, the captain of the Basketball Club Vrbas.(Source: klix.ba)last_img read more

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Man City sign French defender Aymeric Laporte

first_img“I am looking forward to working under Pep Guardiola and trying to help the club to achieve success.”Txiki Begiristain, City’s director of football, said: “We are delighted to have signed Aymeric. We have assessed defensive options and he is a player we have admired for a long time.“With his quality and ability to play out from the back, we feel Aymeric will fit in perfectly with Pep Guardiola’s playing style.”Share on: WhatsApp London, United Kingdom | AFP | Manchester City completed a club record deal for Athletic Bilbao defender Aymeric Laporte on Tuesday in a move by Pep Guardiola to bolster the Premier League leaders’ defence for the title run-in.City tweeted the announcement of the reported £57 million ($80 million, 65 million euros) deal with the message: “Defensive reinforcements acquired!”The 23-year-old Frenchman is Guardiola’s sixth signing of the 2017/18 season and has joined in a deal until 2023.“I am very happy to be here,” Laporte said. “City are a club with a lot of ambition and they are one of the best teams in Europe.last_img read more

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Big names set to sizzle at MVP meet

first_imgRaymond GrahamGleaner WriterToday’s MVP Track and Field meet will take focus inside the National Stadium this evening, with the promise of top quality athletics, given the early form shown so far this season.Following last Saturday’s outstanding performances from several of the country’s top senior athletes including an world leading equalling 11.07 seconds in the women’s 100m from Elaine Thompson, fans are in store for three hours of top class performances once again with the main event expected to start at 3:00pm because of the overwhelming support of entries.Meet organiser Paul Francis is excited about the meet and the support it has received.”We have received over 400 entries and because of this we will have to start a bit earlier, running several heats but the main event with the top seeded athletes will commence at 5:00pm,” said Francis.With this being the last chance for athletes to sharpen up ahead of the Penn Relays it should be great competition for both high school athletes as well as those from clubs and colleges.The Penn Relays will take place in Philadelphia, USA between April 28 – 30.Besides the 4x100m and 4x400m there will be action also in the 4x800m relays with 100m, 200m, 400m, 800m, 100m hurdles, 110m hurdles along with 400m hurdles also facing the starter.An exciting battle is expected in the men’s 100m as former world champion Yohan Blake of Racers Track Club will lead a high quality field with the likes of Sprintec’s Rasheed Dwyer, MVP’s Andrew Fisher and World Championships 200m finalist Zharnel Hughes all posing a threat.World Championships bronze medal winner Shericka Jackson is also expected to feature in the women’s 400m event.Following her defeat to GC Foster College’s Rhonda Whyte in the women’s 400m hurdles, Edwin Allen High schoolgirl Shannon Kallawan, will be hoping to avenge that defeat when both clash once again in an event, which also includes some of the country’s top athletes who will be bidding for spots on Jamaica’s team to the Rio Olympic Games.These include the likes of Sprintec’s Ristananna Tracey, MVP’s Nikita Tracy and the University of West Indies’ Rushell Clayton, who will be defending her collegiate title at the Penn Relays.Today’s meet will also be a good opportunity for high school teams in the relays. Following two sub-40 seconds clocking so far this season, Kingston College led by Jhevaughn Matherson and Akeem Bloomfield will be hoping for another big performance but with defending Penn Relays champion Calabar expected to insert outstanding Class II athlete Christopher Taylor in their line-up, this could make it more difficult for the North Street – based team.Both teams will be pitted against Racers and MVP units, which will also be interesting to see how the schoolboys do against their seniors.Among the girls Penn Relays favourite St. Jago is expected to parade their strong 4x100m team, which is expected to include the likes of Kimone Shaw, Shaniel English and Shanice Reid.However, defending Penn Relays champion Edwin Allen with the likes of Patrice Moodie and Shellece Clarke along Holmwood Technical with Ashley Williams and company could make it difficult for the St. Jago quartet.TODAY’S ORDER OF EVENT5:00 P.M: 4X100M FEMALE5:00 P.M: LONG JUMP MEN5:10 P.M: 4x100M MALEDISCUS FEMALE5:20 P.M: 800M FEMALE5:25 P.M; 800M MALE5:35 P.M: 400M HURDLES FEMALE5:40 P.M 400M HURDLES MALE5:50 P.M : 4X800M FEMALE6:00 P.M: 4X800M MALE6:10 P.M: 400M M FEMALEDISCUS MALE6:20 P.M: 400M MALE6:30 P.M LONG JUMP6:45 P.M: 200M FEMALE6:55 P.M: 200M MALE7:10 P.M: 100M H FEMALE7:15 P.M; 110M H MALE7:55 P.M: 4X400M FEMALE8:00 P.M: 4X400M MALElast_img read more

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Fake Reviews Shadow Brands Selling Online

first_img8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Buying positive product reviews is unethical and sometimes illegal, but always sleazy. Yet the practice flourishes on popular sites like Yelp, TripAdvisor, Google Places and Amazon, according to research firm Gartner.Online reviews, especially those posted at marketplaces like Amazon, are more popular purchasing tools than is word of mouth, according to a survey by Econsultancy. And bloggers remain a popular target for trading positive critiques for cash, coupons and promotions.But just as attractive are social networks, which are where more than half of the Internet gathers. With so many potential customers in one place, companies are desperate to build follower groups and gather more praise than competitors.The Rise In Bogus ReviewsHaving watched the online reputations of some brands rise quickly, many execs are ready to pay for even dishonest praise to catch up. A study by Cornell University found that from 2% to 6% of reviews on Expedia, Hotels.com, Orbitz, Priceline, TripAdvisor and Yelp were bogus, and that total is rising.Companies are paying for Facebook “likes” and Google+ “+1s,” along with hits on YouTube videos. The practice is found among media, entertainment, consumer goods, retail and consumer electronics vendors, Gartner says.By 2014, Gartner believes 10% to 15% of all social-media reviews and ratings will be “bought” and at least two Fortune 500 companies will face litigation from federal regulators for trying to deceive consumers.Who Sells Buzz?Roughly 50 companies sell buzz on social networks. One example is Social Jump, which charges $75 for 1,000 Facebook likes. For an extra $10, clients get geo-targeted likes, Gartner said in a recent report, “The Consequences of Fake Fans, ‘Likes’ and Reviews on Social Networks.” The Facebook thumbs-ups comes from real people, not spam bots. Social Jump also sells “+1s” on Google+, followers on Twitter and thousands of views on YouTube videos.Other companies operating in the same market include MyFBfans, SocialKik.com and Fan Bullet. Along with these companies are a number of reputation-management organizations paying people to write good reviews for clients.When Fake Reviews Are IllegalPaying a blogger or anyone else to write a glowing review is not illegal, as long as it is disclosed to the reader. Of course, doing so would gut the article’s effectiveness, so a lot of times that detail is missing. In 2009, The Federal Trade Commission published guidelines for such disclosures on blogs and other new media and has been ramping up enforcement ever since.For the first 18 months, the FTC handed what amounted to a slap to companies who had too cozy a relationship to bloggers. By mid-2011, the FTC meant business, fining Legacy Learning Systems $250,000 for hiring marketers to get good reviews on sites for one of the company’s educational DVD series.Building Consumer ConfidenceMore hefty fines and media exposure of companies paying for positive ratings and reviews is key to building consumer confidence, said Jenny Sussin, a Gartner analyst and co-author of the report. “We actually think that’s going to increase consumer trust.”In August, Facebook announced that it would start cracking down on likes that didn’t come from real fans.In an indication that the purge has begun, PageData reported last month a big drop in likes for popular pages, including Zynga’s Texas HoldEm Poker and FarmVille, as well as those of pop singers Rihanna, Lady GaGa and Justin Bieber.Separating The Good From The BadDespite efforts to stem illicit reviews, consumers will have to be on guard to spot fakes.Sussin recommended reading multiple reviews and watching for details, such as comments about a hotel’s good service but small rooms. Credible reviews typically point out good and bad features.Reviews that are over the top in criticism or praise should be suspect. “If something is too inflammatory, you can’t trust it,” Sussin said. While companies plant good reviews of their own products, they also hire people to badmouth competitors.Paid reviews ultimately bring only short-term benefits. The company may get some new customers initially, but a poor product can’t withstand the test of time. Such short-sightedness is not new in business, and has driven misleading marketing in the offline world for a long time, keeping regulators busy. The Web won’t make their jobs any easier. Tags:#biz#marketing Related Posts Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic…center_img A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting antone gonsalveslast_img read more

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Rokinon Announces New Wide-Angle Lenses

first_img12mm f/2.0 NCS CS LensAccepts front filters using a 67mm diameter thread.Price: $399Mounts: Canon EF-M, Fujifilm X, Samsung NX,  Sony E, Micro Four Thirds Rokinon announces affordable wide-angle lenses for DSLRs and mirrorless cameras.Rokinon has announced their latest line of lenses today and we’re impressed….Rokinon has cornered the market at creating high quality lenses at a low price point. Their latest announcement serves to address a problem that plagues indie-filmmakers everywhere, crop factor.Crop factor happens when a lens is not capable of taking on the entire field of view of a given lens. This makes lenses look as though they are a higher focal length then what they really are.For example, the popular Blackmagic Cinema Camera has a crop factor of 2.4x, which would take your normally wide 24mm lens and turn it into a 57mm lens. Crop factor makes getting wide shots more difficult but the new manual Rokinon lenses aim to help.Rokinon’s new lense announcement includes a number of wide-angle lenses. Let’s take a look….8mm Fish-Eye II LensThe second generation of the popular 8mm lens.Price: $349Mounts: Canon EF-M, Fijifilm X, Samsung NX, Sony E 8mm T3.1 Cine UMC Fish-Eye II LensA wide angle lens specially designed to be used on film productions. The lens has threads that can be easily fitted into most follow focus’s.Price: $399Mounts: Canon EF-M, Fufifilm X, Samsung NX, Sony EWhen Will the New Rokinon Lenses Ship? The lenses are expected to be available by Tuesday, March 25. You can pre-order all the lenses from most popular lens distributors.What do you think of the new Rokinon lenses?Are there any better alternatives? Share in the comments below.center_img 10mm f/2.8 ED AS NCS CS LensDesigned for APS-C Sensors. The lens was created with a nano coating system.Price: $539Mounts: Canon EF, Pentax K, Sony A, Canon EF-M, Fujifilm X, Samsung NX, Sony E, Micro Four Thirdslast_img read more

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Odds even

first_imgBOCAUE, Bulacan—Barangay Ginebra and Meralco will fight through exhaustion to gain a head start in the PBA Governors’ Cup championship that is now down to a best-of-three series.ADVERTISEMENT MOST READ Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. The Bolts come into Game 5 carrying the momentum after winning the last two games to tie the series and would try to move on the hill as the 55,000-seat Philippine Arena here hosts the final three games of what has been the closest-fought title series of the season about to end.“We now have a series, guys,” Meralco’s Norman Black proclaimed after outlasting the Gin Kings in a close endgame for the second straight night on Friday.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutMorale boost“Coming back [from 0-2] down to tie them is a big morale boost for us. But it will still be very tough moving forward.” Stronger peso trims PH debt value to P7.9 trillion Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Here’s to you, Mr. Robinson Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Both will be playing without key players for the remainder of the series.Meralco’s Ranidel de Ocampo is out because of a torn calf muscle while Cone has ruled out Sol Mercado who twisted an ankle near the final buzzer of Game 4.Meralco has been successful in holding down Ginebra’s huge roster in the last two games, with its ploy of running keeping the 7-foot Greg Slaughter, the Best Player of the Conference, on the bench in the endgame.The Bolts also rode out the inspiration given by former Most Valuable Players Jay Jay Helterbrand and Mark Caguioa, who beat them here last year.“The players were just simply determined not to let them (Caguioa and Heterbrand) beat us again,” Black said. CPP denies ‘Ka Diego’ arrest caused ‘mass panic’ among S. Tagalog NPA QC cops nab robbery gang leader, cohort Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa “This is the way it should be,” Ginebra counterpart Tim Cone said after the 83-85 loss where his players failed to call for a timeout with under 20 seconds remaining.“We are playing a very tough team and they have been able to exploit our weaknesses.”Tip off is at 6:30 p.m. with Meralco shooting to move ahead for the first time in the series and inch closer to the franchise’s first title.“If you asked me before the start of this series if I would be happy [being 2-2] with them at this point, I would have said yes,” Cone added.Key players missingADVERTISEMENT LATEST STORIES Read Next Japan ex-PM Nakasone who boosted ties with US dies at 101 Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games Kin of Misamis Oriental hero cop to get death benefits, award — PNP View commentslast_img read more

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Ceres eyes huge upset vs Tianjin

first_imgMOST READ The Busmen secured their visas from the Chinese embassy only on Monday afternoon and with no direct flight from Manila to Tianjin, they are estimated to arrive in the Northern coastal Chinese city at approximately 3:30 a.m. on Tuesday.The Busmen opened their qualifying campaign with a 4-3 penalty shootout win over Myanmar’s Shan United last Jan. 16, before stunning Brisbane Roar, 3-2, in Queensland last week.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSLillard, Anthony lead Blazers over ThunderSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutBut Tianjin will be a step up in quality as the squad boasts world class talents in Brazilian Alexandre Pato, Belgian Axel Witsel and Chinese Nationals Zhao Xuri and Liu Yiming. Even with far from ideal preparation, Ceres Negros hopes to continue punching above its weight in Asia’s most prestigious club competition as it battles Chinese powerhouse Tianjin Quanjian on Tuesday in the final playoff for a spot in the group stage of the Asian Football Confederation Champions League.Not only are they heavy underdogs against the team that finished third in the Chinese Super League last season, the Busmen will also take the field in freezing conditions just 12 hours after arriving in Tianjin.ADVERTISEMENT Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles02:25Villar on rant vs DA budget: It’s not against research01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City 2 ‘newbie’ drug pushers fall in Lucena sting John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding Slow and steady hope for near-extinct Bangladesh tortoises Read Next Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC LATEST STORIES Eala rules France tourney Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa NEXT BLOCK ASIA 2.0 introduces GURUS AWARDS to recognize and reward industry influencers Globe Business launches leading cloud-enabled and hardware-agnostic conferencing platform in PH View comments Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. last_img read more

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Ulreich apologises to Bayern fans

first_imgBayern Munich goalkeeper Sven Ulreich has apologised to the fans after his mistake proved to be very costly in their 4-3 aggregate defeat to Real Madrid in the Champions League semi-finalsThe German made a critical error by losing his footing while approaching a back-pass from teammate Corentin Tolisso shortly after the break to allow Karim Benzema to add his second of the match and gave Real a 2-1 lead at the Santiago Bernabeu.While James Rodriguez managed to equalise against his parent club, Bayern was unable to find a tie-winning third goal and the German side was eliminated from the competition.Ulreich, who has been the number one goalkeeper at Bayern this season in the place of the injured Manuel Neuer, apologised to the supporters for his error.“Words cannot describe how disappointed I am about leaving the Champions League,” the 29-year-old wrote Instagram.rb leipzig, bayern munichReport: Bayern are held by Leipzig George Patchias – September 14, 2019 Bayern Munich was held to another draw, this time by RB Leipzig.Bayern Munich finds themselves in the unfamiliar position of sitting third in the…“We really wanted to reach the final and we did our best and then this unnecessary mistake happened to me.“I cannot explain it. I’m sorry… for my team and for you fans.”last_img read more

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13 years ago Messi had the worst national team debut

first_imgThe Argentinean superstar wore the Albiceleste for the first time in 2005, but his debut with his country only lasted 47 secondsAfter confirmation that Lionel Messi will not be called up for Argentina’s next two friendlies, Diario Olé remembered the first time he wore the Albiceleste.And it was exactly 13 years ago, on August 17, 2005, when the Barcelona player played for the first time with the national team.That day, Lionel Messi and Argentina would play against Hungary in Budapest.The team was getting ready for the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, and this was one of the last friendlies.Argentina was up 2-1 and in the second half, Messi would enter the field with the Albiceleste for the first time.FC Barcelona, Valencia CFMatch Preview: Barcelona vs Valencia Boro Tanchev – September 14, 2019 Is derby time in La Liga, as Barcelona welcomes Valencia to the Camp Nou Stadium tonight at 21:00 (CET).With only 18 years of age, Lionel wore the shirt number 18 to enter the field.Lisandro Lopez got subbed out with the new player. And in the first seconds, he got sent-off.Messi would battle for the ball against Vilmos Vanczak, and the young player would hit him twice in the face with the right arm.The referee showed a yellow card to the European footballer and a red card to the South American.47 seconds and Messi was already out of the match.Argentina’s coach Lionel Scaloni would tell Lio: “these are things that happen in football. We will not change the opinion we have about you and you will be with use the next match.”last_img read more

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Hackers begone Measurementdeviceindependent QKD increases clock rate and transmission distance while reducing

first_img Recently, however, scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China devised a de novo MDIQKD protocol and have developed a 75 MHz clock rate, fully automatic and highly stable system and superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with detection efficiencies of more than 40%. By so doing, they have extended MDIQKD secure transmission distance to 200 km, and achieving a secure key rate three orders of magnitude higher – and an failure probability six orders of magnitude lower – than those of previous MDIQKD attempts. The researchers state that their results pave the way towards a quantum network with measurement-device-independent security, and in fact have already demonstrate the feasibility of MDIQKD in an unstable environment by performing a field test in which their system was inserted into an installed fiber network.Prof. Qiang Zhang discussed the three key accomplishments detailed in the paper that he, co-group lead Prof. Jian-Wei Pan, Researcher Yan-Lin Tang, and their co-authors published in Physical Review Letters. “Each of our main accomplishments – increasing system clock rate to 75 MHz and improving system stability, extending secure transmission distance to 200 km, and lowering failure probability by six orders of magnitude to 2 × 10−9 – had its unique challenges,” Zhang tells Phys.org. “In terms of performance, this is the first time we’ve increased clock rate to 75 MHz, as well as improving system stability and using high efficiency – over 40% – superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors to develop a fully automatic system, in an MDIQKD approach.” Zhang points out that while a gigahertz clock rate in conventional QKD is easily achieved, this is not the case with MDIQKD. Specifically, unlike conventional QKD, MDIQKD relies on interference between two independent lasers – and increasing the clock rate to 75 MHz caused poor two-laser interference visibility. “The main challenge lies in high-speed laser modulation, including not only severe overshoot, ringing and chirp inside the laser pulse, but also a more subtle problem lying in the temperature fluctuation caused by random triggering signals to the internally-modulated laser source,” Zhang explains. “These effects are observed for the first time simply because interference of two independent high clock-rate lasers could not be discovered in a low-speed system.” Regarding detector efficiency (DE), Zhang notes that superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) have been demonstrated as a key tool for improving the QKD performance – but the challenge is to improve nanowire absorption. The scientists have addressed this issue by integrating an optical cavity structure in the detectors: SNSPDs are cooled down to 2.2 K by using a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to guarantee high detector performance as well as 7´24 hour operation†. “Again,” he stresses, “this is the first time high detector efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors have been applied in an MDIQKD system.”Extending the MDIQKD secure transmission distance to 200 km and achieving a secure key rate three orders of magnitude higher than previous results in recent MDIQKD experiments challenged the researchers in several aspects. “First was the signal-to-noise ratio,” Zhang notes. “Because of the long distance, the signal arriving at the receiver’s side will be very weak. “Secondly, system stability in a 200 km case is difficult since the fiber fluctuation is much severe, and a large attenuation will make it even harder with weak feedback signals. Thirdly, we required a better and stricter post-processing method to handle the greater distance results in a slower raw data rate and a stronger fluctuation.”Finally, to guarantee the safe usage of the secure key in practice, the failure probability must be controlled beneath the order of 10-9 – and the 2 × 10−9 failure probability they achieved is six orders of magnitude lower than previous results. The main reason that previous demonstrations used a higher failure probability of 10−3, Zhang tells Phys.org, is that performing fluctuation analysis with a lower failure probability requires more data to be accumulated. However, this requirement could not be satisfied by the actual experimental systems operated at a slow system clock rate and without full automatic feedback system – especially in the 200 km case when signal attenuation is very large – so the arriving signal is weak.Addressing these challenges was, in itself, a challenge. “For the current experiment,” Zhang continues, “the first challenge was to increase the system clock rate to 75MHz with good laser modulation. To ensure a good waveform, we modulated the laser pulse with an amplitude modulator cutting off the tail, thereby eliminating the influence of the chirp, overshoot and ringing. To ensure robust two-laser interference, we modulated vacuum intensity – instead of not providing the triggering signal – to avoid the effect of temperature fluctuation.” For a long distance QKD experiment, a single-photon detector with high detection efficiency and low dark count rate (the average rate of registered counts without any incident light) is decisive. “A conventional semiconducting APD (avalanched photodiode) cannot fulfill this requirement because of its high dark count rate and low detection efficiency, which is why a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector – specifically, a cryocooler-based SNSPD technology providing over 40% detection efficiency at the dark count rate of 10 Hz – is the sole choice for 200 km MDIQKD.” (In QKD protocols, an ideal single photon source rarely exists, and so is replaced by a weak coherent state laser source or other alternative. This causes a serious security problem that is minimized by using a weak laser source – but the latter results in low QKD speed. Decoy state QKD uses several different photon intensities rather than a single intensity to resolve the multi-photon issue. Moreover, the scientists optimized the decoy state MDIQKD protocol, including the decoy state scheme, intensity and probability distribution.”Secondly,” Zhang continues, “we adopted the high efficiency, low dark count superconducting nanowire single-photon detector to achieve the 200 km distance. Last but not least, to make the entire system stable for a long period of time, we developed several feedback systems to precisely calibrate the parameters of the system, such as a wavelength calibration system employing an optical spectrum analyzer with 1 pm precision.” This is critical because extended system stability enables continuous running for as long as an entire week.The much lower failure probability of 10-9 requires not only an experimental setting capable of accumulating enough raw data, but also a more appropriate post-processing method to extract the secure key. “With this work, for the first time in the entire OKD community we adopt the Chernoff bound (which gives exponentially decreasing bounds on tail distributions of sums of independent random variables) with a failure probability of 10-9 to allow statistical fluctuation analyses six orders of magnitude lower than previously achieved,” Zhang explains. “Furthermore, with the high loss that occurs in long-distance QKD, the Chernoff bound – believed to be a future standard post-processing method – provides better, stricter parameter estimation in the statistical fluctuation analysis.”Interestingly, in their paper the scientists point MDIQKD security is inspired by the time-reversed EPR-based QKD protocol. “This can be explained by a virtual qubit idea,” Zhang says. “A sender first prepares an entangled state of the combined system of her virtual qubit and the qubit to be sent to the receiver. The sender then measures the virtual qubit, thereby preparing a BB84 state.” BB84 is a provably secure quantum key distribution scheme – in fact, the first quantum cryptography protocol – developed by Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard in 1984 (hence its name) relying on the quantum property that information gain is only possible at the expense of disturbing the signal if the two states we are trying to distinguish are not orthogonal. “After making a Bell state measurement (BSM) and obtaining a successful outcome, the receiver announces the results to the sender and the third party in the quantum system, resulting in their virtual qubits becoming entangled. (Bell states are maximally entangled quantum states of two qubits; the Bell state measurement is a joint quantum-mechanical measurement of two qubits that determines which of the four Bell states the two qubits are in.) “In this sense, the protocol is directly equivalent to an entanglement based protocol, only with the time direction reversed.”In addition, the new MDIQKD protocol does not rely on any assumption on measurement. “In the virtual qubit idea, we can see that a sender prepares the BB84 state by measuring a virtual qubit. Since the sender could have delayed the measurement on this virtual qubit until after the receiver performs a Bell state measurement and announces its results, the receiver’s BSM cannot affect the BB84 state preparation process, and so the receiver cannot obtain any information about the BB84 state. In other words, security does not rely on any assumption on measurement.”Another result described in the paper is that the novel MDIQKD system’s techniques constitute a critical ingredient for a quantum repeater and long-distance quantum communication. “Performing a Bell-state measurement is an intrinsic element in these situations,” Zhang points out, because it requires good interference of two independent laser sources. Again, in our work we for the first time have shown the feasibility of this kind of interference, especially at a distance 200 km. Besides the laser modulation techniques, the feedback systems developed for this purpose – for example, time calibration and wavelength calibration – are also of great importance to realizing a long-distance quantum repeater.”The researchers point out that their results have a range of implications for future quantum communication systems, one clearly being it paving the way towards a quantum network with measurement-device-independent security. “Our MDIQKD system includes two clients and one server. With the help of a system-wide feedback system, all users are time-synchronized and all independent laser sources have the same wavelength. All these techniques are definitely a solid foundation of building an MDIQKD network. In addition, to add more clients into the network, all that is needed is placing an active optical switch in the server’s site – and with off-the-shelf optical switches, this MDIQKD network can be built in the near future.”The novel MDIQKD protocol has a star-type structure in which the detection system placed in the Bell-state measurement site as a server, allowing it to be shared by all transmitters – a structure very suitable to a QKD network with a star-type structure, since all the end-node clients can share the entire measurement system of the center-node server. This means that, importantly, only laser sources and modulators are required when more clients are added to the network. Zhang notes that these devices are much smaller and cheaper than the complex, expensive detectors – a factor preferred for creating an economical network.The scientists have also performed a field test in which their system has been inserted into an installed fiber network to demonstrate the feasibility of MDIQKD in an unstable environment. “Previously, an MDIQKD field test was performed over an 18.6 km deployed fiber by Wolfgang Tittel’s group at the University of Calgary1,” Zhang tells Phys.org. “However, a random modulated decoy state was not added in that experiment, so a secure key was not actually generated. Moreover, all other laboratory demonstrations are performed without perturbation of the field environment.” Based on the technology developed in their experiment, the researchers have achieved a 16.9 bps secure key rate over a 30 km fiber network of total length‡.Zhang and his co-authors envision a number of future real-world applications that would be made feasible by using a single fiber to transmit both signal laser pulses and synchronization laser pulses, as well as by minimizing noise generated from Raman spontaneous scattering. “To make MDIQKD more attractive for potential users, our goal is to have only one single fiber required for each link. This would decrease the resources required by real-world applications, such as voice calls and file transfers, and would be especially useful in some particular situations.” For example, a user having insufficient fiber link resources could multiplex a single fiber link to do classical synchronization and single-photon transmission – or in the occasional situation when a user performs QKD tasks, it would be preferable to have one fiber link rather than two in order to conserve normally unused resources.Zhang adds that a significant concern when adopting one single fiber is strong spontaneous Raman scattering of the synchronization light, which introduces additional noise to the signal and thus increases error rates. (Spontaneous Raman scattering is the inelastic scattering of photons – in which the kinetic energy of an incident particle is not conserved, but lost or increased – in random time intervals.) “Typically, the power of the synchronization light is at least five orders of magnitude higher than the signal light – so spontaneous Raman scattering could be disastrous. We therefore have to be careful when multiplexing these two kinds of light, because otherwise the resulting high noise and error rates would male all real world applications impossible.”Moving forward, Zhang says that the scientists plan to build a polarization-encoding MDIQKD system, which let them remove the phase stabilization that is currently required, as well as other possible innovations. “In our experiment, wavelength calibration is based on an optical spectrum analyzer. However, in addition to this simple and direct approach, we plan to develop an alternative way without an optical spectrum analyzer – but only with the evaluation of two independent laser sources. This can be realized by observing Hong-Ou-Mandel dip.” (The Hong–Ou–Mandel effect is a two-photon interference effect in quantum optics that occurs when two identical single-photon waves enter a 50:50 beam splitter, one in each input port. When both photons are identical they will extinguish each other – but if they become more distinguishable the probability of detection will increase, allowing the interferometer to accurately measure bandwidth, path lengths and timing.) Moreover, Zhang adds, the researchers plan to build a three-layer architecture to generate, manage and use the secure key, respectively, which will lead to a more complete and practical QKD network.”Since the Bell state measurement is so common in quantum information,” Zhang concludes, “our Bell state measurement techniques can be utilized in other quantum information tasks.” “These tasks include the quantum repeater mentioned above, quantum fingerprinting and quantum teleportation.” (Phys.org)—In the ongoing effort to make communications secure, Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) theoretically provides a solution – but to the delight of increasingly sophisticated hackers, falls short in real-world systems due to implementation deviating from mathematical models. A number of QKD variants – including Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution (DIQKD) and the more recently introduced Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution (MDIQKD) – attempt to close the gap between theory and practice with varying degrees of success. These two variants differ in several ways, the most important being that DIQKD requires but unlike MDIQKD cannot easily achieve very high detection efficiency and low channel loss to yield secure keys, while MDIQKD, unlike DIQKD, does not rely on any ideal devices and can close the most vulnerable QKD security hole by removing all side-channels from the measurement unit. Nevertheless, previous MDIQKD systems have had limitations as well, such as limited distance and a low key rate of less than 0.1 bit/s. Journal information: Physical Review Letters (a) Schematic layout of our MDIQKD setup. Alice’s (Bob’s) signal laser pulses (1550 nm) are modulated into three decoy-state intensities by AM1. An AMZI, an AM2–4, and one PM are used to encode qubits. Charlie’s setup consists of a polarization stabilization system and a BSM system. The polarization stabilization system in each link includes an EPC, a PBS, and a SPAPD. The BSM system includes an interference BS and two SNSPDs. (b) Time calibration system. Two SynLs (1570 nm) are adopted, with the 500 kHz shared time reference generated from a crystal oscillator circuit (COC) and with the time delayed by a programmable delay chip (PDC). Alice (Bob) receives the SynL pulses with a PD and then regenerates a system clock of 75 MHz. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer, ConSys: control system. (c) Phase stabilization system. Circ: circulator, PC: polarization controller, PS: phase shifter. Credit: Tang, Yan-Lin et al. (2014) Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution over 200 km. Phys. Rev. Lett. 113:190501. High-fidelity photon-to-atom quantum state transfer could form backbone of quantum networks More information: Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution over 200 km, Physical Review Letters (2014) 113:190501, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.190501Related:1Real-World Two-Photon Interference and Proof-of-Principle Quantum Key Distribution Immune to Detector Attacks, Physical Review Letters (2013) 111:130501, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.130501†Detectors and cryocooling systems developed by Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)‡Paper to be published in IEEE Journal of Selected Topics of Quantum Electronics Explore further Citation: Hackers begone: Measurement-device-independent QKD increases clock rate and transmission distance while reducing failure (2014, December 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-12-hackers-begone-measurement-device-independent-qkd-clock.html © 2014 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Parental controls dont stop teens from watching porn

first_imgParents, take note. If you think that Internet filtering tools – such as parental controls – will stop your teenage child from accessing explicit sexual content online then you may be wrong, a new study suggests.The findings, published in the journal Cyberpsychology, Behaviour and Social Networking, indicated that Internet filtering tools are ineffective.According to the researchers from the University of Oxford in Britain, the use of Internet filtering tools is widespread but there has been no conclusive evidence on their effectiveness until now. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf”It’s important to consider the efficacy of Internet filtering. Internet filtering tools are expensive to develop and maintain, and can easily ‘underblock’ due to the constant development of new ways of sharing content,” said co-author Victoria Nash.The research team presented two studies – one exploratory analysis of secondary data collected in the European Union and one preregistered study focused on British adolescents and caregivers – with nearly 15,000 participants. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive”We were also interested to find out how many households would need to use filtering technologies in order to stop one adolescent from seeing online pornography,” said co-author Andrew Przybylski.”The findings from our preliminary study indicated that somewhere between 17 and 77 households would need to use Internet filtering tools in order to prevent a single young person from accessing sexual content,” Przybylski added.The results from follow-up study showed no statistically or practically significant protective effects for filtering. The researchers noted that there should be more research done to solidify these findings.last_img read more

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Neckneck battle surfaces in Bengal

first_imgKolkata: The 42 Lok Sabha seats in Bengal witnessed a neck-and-neck fight between Trinamool Congress and BJP. While TMC won 21 seats, BJP bagged 16 with a single seat for Congress. TMC was leading in one seat, BJP in a couple and Congress in one as per the last poll result update.TMC’s showing was good, particularly in South 24-Parganas, Kolkata, Howrah and Birbhum, where it managed to retain all the seats it had won in 2014. In South 24-Parganas, Pratima Mondal won the Joynagar seat by over 3 lakh votes, while Chowdhury Mohan Jatua won the Mathurapur seat by around 2 lakh votes. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataAbhisekh Banejee came out with flying colours in the Diamond Harbour seat by over 3 lakh votes, whereas Mimi Chakraborty won the Jadavpur seat by over 2.9 lakh votes. The prestigious Kolkata North and Kolkata South seats were won by Sudip Bandyopadhyay and Mala Roy respectively, while Howrah and Uluberia were won by Prasun Banerjee and Sajda Ahmed. The party also managed to win both the seats in Birbhum district, with Satabdi Roy bagging Birbhum and Asit Mal winning from Bolpur. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateTamluk, Kanthi and Ghatal went in favour of TMC as well, while BJP’s Dilip Ghosh and Kunar Hembram bagged Midnapore and Jhargram, where TMC had a lead of 34,78,883 votes in 2014. The Purulia seat also swung in favour of Jyotirmay Singh Mahato of BJP, where TMC had won by 1,53,877 votes in 2014. The Malda Uttar seat that was won by Mausam Noor of Congress, also swung in favour of the saffron party with Khagen Murmu winning. Noor ended up in the losing side this year, contesting on TMC’s ticket. Abu Hasem Khan Chowdhury of Congress was leading in the Maldah Dakshin seat as of the last update. In Murshidabad, TMC’s Khalilur Rahman defeated Congress’s Abhijit Mukherjee from the Jangipur seat by a margin of over 3 lakh votes. Mukherjee, the son of former President Pranab Mukherjee, had won by a margin of 8,161 votes in 2014. Adhir Chowdhury of Congress, meanwhile, retained the Behrampur seat though his lead dropped to 78,000 from 3,56,567 last year. The Murshidabad seat that was bagged by Left Front in 2014, was grabbed by TMC’s Abu Taher Khan. The Krishnanagar seat was retained by Mahua Maitra of TMC, who won by over 65,000 votes. The Ranaghat seat, the second in Nadia district, went to Jagannath Sarkar of BJP where TMC had a lead of 2,01,767 votes in 2014. In North 24-Parganas, Sougata Roy of TMC managed to retain the Dum Dum seat and Kakoli Ghosh Dastidar won the Barasat seat, while newcomer Nusrat Jahan won from Basirhat. The Bongaon seat, where TMC had won by 1,46,601 votes in 2014, swung in favour of Santanu Thakur of BJP. The Barrackpore seat witnessed defeat of TMC’s Dinesh Trivedi, where BJP’s Arjun Singh won by a narrow margin of around 13,000 votes. Hooghly, meanwhile, had a mixed result for TMC with Kalyan Banerjee retaining the Sreerampore seat and the Hooghly seat swinging in favour of BJP with Locket Chatterjee winning over Ratna Dey Nag of TMC. Aparupa Poddar of TMC has a narrow lead of over 2,000 votes in Arambagh, according to the latest update. Burdwan East was retained by Sunil Mondal of TMC, while the Burdwan-Durgapur seat was witnessing a lead by the saffron party, as per last reports. The Asansol seat was retained by BJP’s Babul Supriyo. TMC suffered a setback, particularly in North Bengal. John Barla of BJP defeated party candidate Dasrath Tirkey, while Nisith Pramanik shocked TMC’s Paresh Chandra Adhikary. Jayanta Kumar Roy of BJP also emerged victorious over Bijoy Chandra Barman of the ruling party from Jalpaiguri, whereas BJP’s Sukanta Majumdar snatched the Balurghat seat from TMC’s Arpita Ghosh. TMC had won all these seats in 2014. BJP’s Raju Bista managed to retain the Darjeeling seat, while the Raiganj seat that saw a narrow margin win for Left Front’s Mohammed Salim in 2014, also went in favour of the saffron party. TMC witnessed collapse in the two seats of Bankura district, with Saumitra Khan winning from the Bishnupur seat. Both the seats had been won by TMC in the last Lok Sabha elections.last_img read more

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