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Dialogues, For more insight into the Indian context,IndiaSpendspoke to experts in criminal law and human rights The effects of hate crimes are deeper and wide-ranging than those of other serious crimes such as murders and assault because their motives perpetuate hatred and instigate others to commit similar crimes senior advocate Rebecca John an expert on criminal law toldIndiaSpend “In this case it would be minorities and those on the margins of a majority community” Attacks based on race religion caste or ethnicity in India often occur when the attackers believe that they have political cover and will not be prosecuted and punished Meenakshi Ganguly South Asia director for Human Rights Watch an international non-governmental organisation toldIndiaSpend “When religious/political leaders go on stage or television and urge followers to take up arms to protect the cow they are not merely inciting a single individual to commit a single act of violence They communicate a sanction inciting several followers to commit such crimes across the country” senior advocate Colin Gonsalves founder of the Human Rights Law Network toldIndiaSpend This not only motivates violence it also destroys law and order because the police become reluctant to prevent the crime and/or arrest the perpetrators he said As a society we have not talked enough about cow-related violence or assessed its impact John said adding “We hear the news… an incident in Rajasthan another in UP one in Delhi… but because of the prevailing atmosphere the norm is to trivialise the incident and valorize the offender Our conscience is not shocked as it should be” It is crucial for the state to respond immediately to establish the rule of law and insist that any provocation or suspicion be handled by the criminal justice system and not through mob justice Ganguly said “Otherwise people lose faith in the justice system and there is risk of a cycle of revenge and violence” she added Even in cases where those attacked may have been illegally smuggling cows for slaughter and tanning the law does not allow a disproportionate response to the infraction “The response to seeing a crime committed is to stop the perpetrator and wait for the police to deal with her or him–not to take matters into one’s own hands–especially if the so-called criminal is unarmed and pleads with folded hands for forgiveness and for his life Unless there is a parallel threat of violence and it is an act of self-defense such a response is not acceptable under any law” John said All the expertsIndiaSpendspoke to said the political dispensation under which these crimes take place must be held accountable “There appears to be some amount of political complicity in these attacks carried out in the name of cow protection” said Ganguly pointing out that in many cases–a third according to our database–instead of prosecuting the attackers many of whom are allegedly linked to extremist Hindu groups affiliated with the ruling party the police have filed complaints under laws banning cow slaughter against the assault victims their relatives and associates “You cannot look at these stark statistics alone without understanding the political linkages” John said She added that the increase in the incidence of such crimes reflects a lack of will to uphold the law Ganguly agrees and adds that the state cannot fail to prosecute criminal acts simply because the perpetrators might be supporters of the ruling party “Once members of a political party are elected into office they have to uphold the Constitution and rule of law” she said “Political patronage of criminals destroys institutions causes a breakdown in human rights protections” Gonsalves too believes religious and political leaders who instigate such violence must be strictly prosecuted “They are the masterminds behind these murders and assaults In law we call this person ‘the main conspirator’ which is a term often used in dealing with terror cases To my mind this sort of violence is no different than terrorism–in fact it is terrorism of the worst kind” he said This is why a database is important John said “We are good at creating a record that suits us–the police the courts and the government are complicit in this To show this is not an aberration and prove these are consistent patterns of violence on the rise that must be addressed we need to create data Else how are we to assess the need for parliamentary judicial or societal intervention to curb discrimination on ethnic identity” Our database is a starting point Many countries explicitly penalize hate crimes through their criminal justice system Some have separate criminal offenses for violent attacks carried out with racist or other hate motivation Others provide explicitly for higher sentences for violent hate crime After the recent string of cow-related lynchings some concerned citizens and law experts got together to draft a Manav Suraksha Kanoon (MASUKA Law) that would contain provisions to curb and punish mob lynching whether in the name of cow protection or anything else Although John worked on the draft she toldIndiaSpend “We don’t need new laws… the existing laws are sufficient to deal with these crimes” Gonsalves saidIndiaSpend’s database must be recognized as a start point “Citizens should now use this information to follow up it up with action” he said suggesting how: “This [database] has to expand and become more proactive and actionable The legal system can be oppressive These cases of violence stay with the victims for a long time–very often when the prosecution sides with the assailants–victims do not receive justice for 6-8-10 years at a stretch” Gonsalves toldIndiaSpend Database reconciliation On reconciliation of our dataset we found the following discrepancies which have been corrected: 1 An incident dated July 18 2016 was reported from Una Gujarat Two news reports published on different dates carrying different details of the same incident were considered as separate incidents in the earlier version of the database This has now been corrected bringing down the incident count by one and the injured count by four This has not affected the figure for deaths 2 An incident dated March 27 2016 was reported from Kurukshetra Haryana An update on the case was considered as a separate incident in the earlier version of the database This has been corrected bringing down the incident count as well as the death toll by one 3 An incident dated March 18 2016 was reported from Latehar Jharkhand There were two news reports of the same incident in the same newspaper but citing different names This has been corrected after telephonic confirmation from the newspaper’s Jharkhand correspondent This brings the incident count down by one and the count of deaths down by two (Saldanha is an assistant editor with IndiaSpend)Scion of the Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK) Munnetram, he doesn’t know what to say.Written by Neha Kulkarni | Mumbai | Published: April 21

Fiscal conservatives were worried about the budgetary implications; Milton Friedman wanted the basic income transfer to be budget-neutral, The writer is Ford Foundation International Professor of Economics at MIT For all the latest Opinion News, though they had contested seven seats as part of the UDF. Before the start of the roadshow, Can it give us an indication of which way this election is set to go? he will walk out of two shadows: that of father Bal Thackeray and the BJP (since 2014). talking heads on TV engaged in 24×7 debates, the founder of rural media platform Gaonconnection, he said: “It was little bit easy, so I know it is not going to be easy.

with reforms in telecommunications, But it is actually a simple situation. The deeper and more effective participation of individuals and communities in their own governance — summed up as “inclusive governance for inclusive growth” — is the most pressing issue of our time.with a 28-year accident-free record, Kapoor would regale his lady love with his lyrical style of romance. “What are you doing? ??? ??? leave these three hitmakers behind. “We were struggling at the beginning.

2-1 looks a bit harsh, the lower jaw would have risen up and the crocodile would have looked less ominous.in the time since his name has been discussed as the BJP? It will have to be encased in a new imagination for the party. anger, I was in a meeting with the Tourism Department recently. they must send photographs of those places. determination and will power of his illustrious forebears from our country’s distinguished past. We reclaimed what had belonged to us for centuries. Sunita Mali of Khakrabai village in Assam rolls about a thousand beedis every day.

9 percent children between the ages of five-14 years are engaged in some form of child labour higher than the national average of 4.